Secondary rules in international law

New book from OUP, edited by Başak Çalı, Gabor Katjar and Marko Milanovic, examines importance of secondary rules in international courts and tribunals.

A new book edited by Başak Çalı, Professor of International Law at the Hertie School, together with Gabor Katjar, Elte Law School, Budapest, and Marko Milanovic, University of Reading, explores how significant secondary rules are in the developing the primary rules of international law. The book, Secondary Rules of Primary Importance in International Law: Attribution, Causality, Evidence and Standards of Review in the Practice of International Courts, was published in late November 2022 by Oxford University Press.

In international law, secondary rules determine whether primary rules of international law are violated. Çalı’s book offers a comprehensive, expert analysis of four types of secondary rules in international law – standards of review, causation, evidentiary rules and attribution – and explores how these operate in international courts or tribunals with regards to human rights, trade, investment and humanitarian law. Different courts covered in the volume range from the International Court of Justice, arbitration tribunals, the European Court of Human Rights, the Court of Justice of the European Union, UN quasi-judicial bodies and the World Trade Organisation dispute settlement mechanism.

With contributions from some of today’s most prominent legal scholars, the book is an important resource for both law students and practitioners in the context of the wide-ranging yet fragmented nature of international courts and tribunals.


Tilmann Altwicker, University of Zurich
Eyal Benevisti, University of Cambridge
Christina Binder, University of Vienna
Başak Çalı, Hertie School
Catherine Gascoigne, University of Sydney
Lukasz Gruszczynski, Kozminski University, Warsaw
Alexandra Ellen Hansen,, Bern
Martin Jarett, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law
Gabor Katjar, ELTE Law School, Budapest
Vladsylav Lavonoy, University Laval, Quebec City
Christopher Lentz, Office of the President of the United Nations International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals
Marko Milanovic, University of Reading
Alice Ollino, University of Milano Bicocca
Katalin Sulyok, ELTE Eötvös Lorand Unversity, Budapest
Stephan Wittich, University of Vienna
Jure Zrilic, City Law School, London

Find the book from Oxford University Press here.


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Views expressed by the author/interviewee may not necessarily reflect the views and values of the Hertie School.

More about our expert

  • Başak Çalı, Professor of International Law | Director, Centre for Fundamental Rights