EU institutions and member states should join forces to address the capabilities-expectations gap which is widening in light of internal and external contestation. This implies, first, starting with the right institutional set-up, notably a European Security Council providing strategic direction and a Commission DG Defence driving industrial consolidation in the defence sector. Second, the EU should raise the European Defence Union to the next level by addressing divergent arms export policies, strengthening its operational arm and deepening cooperation with NATO. Third, the EU should revitalise foreign policy by taking gradual steps towards qualified majority voting, making the Council’s work more efficient, and developing a longer-term vision.
This series is a cooperation between the Jacques Delors Institutes in Berlin and Paris and makes concrete proposals for the EU’s next institutional cycle. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher.