Policy
20.12.18

PESCO and the EI2: similar aims, different paths

France and Germany stand at the centre of two recent European defence cooperation initiatives: PESCO and the EI2. This policy brief compares two of the new European defence cooperation initiatives: the Treaty-based permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) and the French-driven European Intervention Initiative (EI2). How do they differ and how could they be linked?

Image: CC Richard Walker, source: flickr.com