Abstracts and bibliographies
These databases allow flexible searching for details about journal articles, books and book reviews. As they cover different subjects and types of publication, you may need to use more than one to identify relevant references for your research.
Off-campus access is only available to Hertie School staff and students
- A bibliographic database of information about environmental concerns.
Online Contents Special Subject Collections
- OLC-SSG Economic Sciences is a subject oriented selection of bibliographic data with more than 2,786,750 records of articles.
- This special subject collections contains: Economy - Business Economics - Economic Sectors
- OLC-SSG Higher Education offers detailed information on tables of contents of periodicals on higher education.
- Currently 64 journals are being indexed in general back to the year 1993. The weekly updated database contains 39.950 records of journal articles and reviews on theory, philosophy, history, politics, sociology, economy, and management of higher education as well as didactics, statistics, and the national and international infrastructure of research, and academia.
- OLC-SSG International Relations and Area Studies contains table of contents of journals from several special subject collections, including political science, economics, the Middle East and other regional special subject collections.
- OLC_SSG Law contains the contents of 766 journals. Currently it contains approximately 1,264,700 records of articles and reviews in the field of the law.
- OLC_SSG Political Science and Peace Research offers access to tables of contents of more than 832 journals relevant for study and research.
The CSA PAIS International database offers access to international literature in public affairs, public and social policies, and international relations. The database contains references to more than 556,400 journal articles, books, government documents, statistical directories, grey literature, research reports, conference reports, publications of international agencies, microfiche, Internet materials, and more.
Sowiport (CSA Social Sciences*) offers references and abstracts of articles from academic journals, conference proceedings, books and book chapters in the social sciences. Includes the following databases:
- ASSIA: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (1987-2011)
- CSA Social Services Abstracts (1979-2011)
- CSA Sociological Abstracts (1952-2011)
- CSA Worldwide Political Science Abstracts (1975-2011)
- PAIS International (1915-2011)
- Physical Education Index (1970-2011)
World Biographical Information System (WBIS) offers a wealth of biographical information on more than 5 million people: men and women from all classes and professions, from all countries and regions of the earth, from the 4th millennium BC to the present.
Books and eBooks
The Library is continually increasing its stock of books. All books are listed in the Library Catalogue. You can borrow most of the library material.
ProQuest Ebook Central
EBook-Central contains over 780.000 e-books available for rental and download.
eBooks on EBSCOhost*
EBSCO offers access to thousands of e-books related to the topics of Business and Economics, Science, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Law, Humanities and Area Studies. Please see the eBooks on Ebscohost User Guide for tips on using the new platform.
This OECD iLibrary page serves as an entry point for browsing and searching all book-length OECD research and analysis.
Discussion and working papers
Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP)
Hosted jointly by the University of Leeds and the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), and chaired by Lord Nicholas Stern, the CCCEP brings together some of the world's leading researchers on climate change economics and policy, from many different disciplines. See Policy Papers.
DIW Berlin (German Institute for Economic Research)
The Discussion Papers feature latest research results that have not yet been published elsewhere.
Freie Universität Berlin - SFB 700 “Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood”
SFB 700 analyses governance – the diverse forms and modes of ruling – in areas in which state authority is limited. How are public goods provided when states do not effectively exercise a monopoly on the use of force? How are binding rules determined and enforced when states lack basic capabilities? The SFB Working Paper Series provides an overview over current research of SFB 700 research projects.
Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB)
The Discussion Papers are aimed at scientists as well as experts working in politics, economics and society.
Through the Foreign Policy Paper series, Brookings senior fellows and other experts weigh in on a broad range of critical issues facing the United States and international community.
Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)
The Policy Paper series was launched by CEPR in 1999 to provide a forum for the analysis of important policy issues by leading researchers.
Max Planck Institute for the study of societies
MPIfG Discussion Papers are refereed scholarly papers. Their objective is to contribute to the cumulative improvement of theoretical knowledge.
The Global Policy Institute
The Global Policy Institute is a Research Institute of London Metropolitan University. It was founded in August 2006 to analyse the issues of globalisation and to formulate innovative policy solutions GPI Policy Papers.
Institute of International Relations Prague (IIR)
In this section you will find papers suggesting steps in policy-making processes.
Kiel Institute of World Economics
Kiel Policy Brief specifically address policy issues since 2008.
German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP)
For nearly 50 years, the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (German Institute for International and Security Affairs - SWP) has provided analysis on foreign policy issues not only to the Bundestag and the German Federal Government, but also to economic actors and the general public. SWP Research Papers
Global Public Policy Institute
The GPPi Research Paper Series is intended to disseminate research in new approaches to effective and accountable global governance. The goal is to add substance to the policy debate on such topics as accountability, public-private partnerships, global public policy networks, the reform of international organizations, and corporate social responsibility. GPPi Research Papers
The Transnational Institute (TNI) was established in 1974 as an international network of activist researchers (“scholar activists”) committed to critical analyses of the global problems of today and tomorrow. It aims to provide intellectual support to movements struggling for a more democratic, equitable and environmentally sustainable world. Provided in-depth briefings, reports, papers and backgrounders by TNI staff, fellows and associates: Publications
Center for International Prospective Studies (CEPII)
The French research centre in international economics produces studies, working papers, databases and analysis on the world economy and its evolution.
Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)
DIIS is an independent research institution for international studies, financed primarily by the Danish state DIIS Working Papers
German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
The GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies is a Hamburg-based research institute focused on political, economic and social developments in Africa, Asia, Latin America, North Africa, and the Middle East. GIGA Working Papers
Institute of Economic Growth
Widely recognized as a Centre of excellence, it is one of India 's leading academic institutions in the fields of economic and social development Working Papers
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Publications
IMF Publications with links to the full text of recent Working Papers, Staff Country Reports, Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment, Member Country Publications, as well as to Work in Progress and Order Information.
Kiel Institute of World Economics
The Institute regards research into potentially innovative solutions to urgent problems of the world economy as its main task. Complete working papers are given in PDF format.
Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW Kiel)
The publication server EconStor contains more than 30,000 publications, most of which originate from economic research institutions in Germany and are provided under usage agreement with the rights holders.
Max Planck Institute for the study of societies
MPIfG Working Papers present ideas that could guide future scholarly research. They may also draw out the implications of available knowledge for a better understanding of public-policy issues. MPIfG Working Papers are refereed scholarly papers.
University of Bremen - CRC 597 "Transformations of the State"
The collective object of the research in the sub-projects is to ascertain whether and in which way the classical liberal national state has changed in the past 30 years under the pressure of globalisation and liberalisation. The Series TranState working papers of the CRC 597 is dedicated to the publication of theoretical and empirical studies dealing with the central questions of the Research Center.
EBSCO Full text finder is a locator tool listing all of the library’s e-resources, including e-journals, titles in full-text databases, publisher packages and e-books.
The Electronic Journals Library (EZB) offers an overview of more than 80.000 journals from all areas of research. The availability of full text access for Hertie Library is indicated by different colours:
- Green: Free available
- Yellow: Free for the staff and students of the Hertie School
- Yellow and red: Only in part accessible to staff and students of the Hertie School
- Red: No full text accessible
The Library provides newspapers in print in the cafeteria but the majority are provided in electronic format only. Also use Publication Finder to check whether the Library has a particular newspaper title you need, searchable by title and by subject.
The Factiva database by Dow Jones & Company is a business information and research tool which aggregates and provides access to more than 32,000 sources (such as newspapers, journals, magazines, television and radio transcripts, photos, etc.) from nearly every country worldwide in 28 languages, including more than 600 continuously updated newswires. The access is limited to three users at the same time.
- Frankfurter Allgemeinen Zeitung ab 1993 –
- Frankfurter Allgemeinen Sonntagszeitung ab 1995 -
- on and off campus available
- Corriere della Sera
- The Daily Telegraph
- Le Figaro
- Le Monde
- International New York Times
- The Observer
- taz, die tageszeitung
- Die ZEIT
PressReader includes more than 3700 newspapers and magazines from 92 countries in 48 languages, including
- The Washington Post
- Daily Mail
- Der Tagesspiegel
- Neue Zürcher Zeitung
- Le Monde
- Il Sole 24 ore
You can also enjoy 3 days of offsite access to PressReader, even after you have left the library. Simply create a free PressReader account, and continue to enjoy PressReader wherever you are.
- Süddeutsche Zeitung (Deutschland, Bayern und München Ausgabe) ab 1992
- SZ Landkreisausgaben ab 1994
- SZ-Supplements wie SZ Magazin, SZ für Kinder, jetzt, Süddeutsche.de
On-campus access is automatic for most databases; off-campus access is only available to Hertie staff and students. Please see the remote access instructions on Moodle.
18th/19th/20th Century House of Commons Parliamentary Papers*
HCPP now includes over 200,000 House of Commons seasonal papers from 1715 to the present, with supplementary material back to 1688. HCPP delivers page images and searchable full text for each paper, along with detailed indexing.
You have access to the following collections:
- 18th century (1688-1834)
- 19th century (1801-1900)
- 20th century (1901-2003/04 session)
The database features thousands of full-text journals, dissertations, working papers, key business and economics periodicals such as the Economist, country-and industry-focused reports, and downloadable data.
- Economic conditions
- Corporate strategies
- Management theory
- Management techniques
- Business trends
- Competitive landscape and product information
- Finance etc.
Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1923-2006ff*
Since 1932, Annual Reviews has offered comprehensive, timely collections of critical reviews written by leading scientists. Annual Reviews volumes are published each year for 40 focused disciplines within the Biomedical, Life, Physical, and Social Sciences including Economics.
Agence Europe 1995-2019 (DVD-ROM and online archive)
The Agence Europe DVD-ROM and online archive contain all the daily bulletins, including supplements, since 1 January 1995. They give instantaneous access, using Windows (R), to thousands of articles, news reports or documents, identified by words from the complete text or from the title, theme, author and, of course, the date and number of the bulletin. Please click here to find the DVD in the library. If you want to access the online archive, please contact the library team.
China Academic Journals*
CAJ is the most comprehensive, full-text database of Chinese journals in the world. It contains more than 7,200 journals starting from 1994 and covers disciplines like literature, history, law, politics and economics.
Columbia International Affairs Online
CIAO is the most comprehensive source for theory and research in international affairs. It publishes a wide range of scholarship from 1991 onward that includes working papers from university research institutes, occasional papers series from NGOs, foundation-funded research projects, proceedings from conferences, books, journals and policy briefs.
Central and Eastern European Online Library*
CEEOL is an online archive (provided by a national licence via Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) which provides access to full-text PDF articles from 311 humanities and social science journals and re-digitized documents pertaining to Central, Eastern and Southeastern European topics.
COMINTERN Electronic Archives
The Communist International: The Communist, or Third, International (COMINTERN) was founded in early 1919 by Lenin as an international revolutionary proletarian party. The COMINTERN consisted of about 70 communist and socialist parties in Europe, Asia, and America. Consequently, it deeply influenced the political life of many countries worldwide. The semi-legal and clandestine activities coordinated by the COMINTERN made this one of the most cloistered societies of recent centuries.
Comintern online is a free online inventory to the complete Comintern Archives (55,000,000 pages)
Digital National Security Archive*
The Digital National Security Archive (DNSA) contains the most comprehensive set of declassified government documents available. The resource now includes 36 collections consisting of over 80,000 meticulously indexed documents, with more than 500,000 total pages. Each of these collections covers the most critical world events, countries, and U.S. policy decisions from post World War II through the 21st century.
The Economist: Historical Archive 1843 – 2007*
The Economist Historical Archive delivers a complete searchable copy of every issue of The Economist from 1843 to 2007.
EconLit with Full Text
EconLit with Full Text - the American Economic Association's Full Text database - is a source of citations, abstracts and full texts to economic research dating back to 1969. It provides links to full-text articles in all fields of economics, including capital markets, country studies, econometrics, economic forecasting, environmental economics, government regulations, labour economics, monetary theory, urban economics and much more.
EconLit with Full Text contains:
- Collective volume articles
- Book reviews
- Journal articles
- Working papers
EconBiz is a search portal for economics and business studies. It offers:
- A literature search across important German and international databases, including the holdings of ZBW
- Access to free and licensed full texts on the internet
- A calendar of events for scholarly conferences and summer schools
- The reference service Research Guide EconDesk which answers your questions about the search for literature and statistical data.
- Online Tutorial Guided Walk on how to search, evaluate and cite scholarly publications.
EIU Country Reports Archive*
The Economist Intelligence Unit provides a constant flow of analysis and forecasts on more than 200 countries and eight key industries.
Entscheidungssammlungen der Entscheidungen des Reichsgerichts in Zivilsachen (RGZ) und der Entscheidungen des Reichsgerichts in Strafsachen (RGSt)*
RGZ contains the complete collection of the German Supreme Court decisions in civil matters from 1880 to 1945. It includes 172 volumes of over 15,000 decisions on approximately 91,000 pages. RGSt contains the complete collection of the German Supreme Court decisions in criminal matters and is available from 1880 to 1944. This collection includes 77 volumes with 39,000 pages.
Financial Times Historical Archive 1888-2010*
The Financial Times Historical Archive delivers the complete searchable run of the world’s most authoritative daily business newspaper. Every item ever printed in the paper, from 1888-2010, can be searched and browsed article by article and page by page.
Integrum World Wide (Integrum Profi)*
Integrum World Wide is the largest full-text database of Russia and the CIS, which currently contains over 360 million documents. The electronic full text in Russian and English languages have their focus in the areas of politics, culture, economy and society of Russia and the CIS.
JSTOR is an online archive of academic journals in all fields. JSTOR is not a current issues database, there is a gap, the so-called "moving wall" between the most recently published journal issue and the back issues available in JSTOR. Registering for MyJSTOR allows you to save citations and searches, and to access the database from off-campus.
Nexis (formerly LexisNexis Academic) offers information about Companies, Market Insight, Biographies, US Public Records, Legal sources (UK, Commonwealth & EU Casesand legal journals).
Further Nexis includes a large selection of international newspapers updated daily. Among them The Daily Telegraph, International New York Times, The Observer, Le Figaro, Le Monde, Corriere della Sera, taz, die tageszeitung, Die ZEIT.
For advanced searches consult the user guide (PDF).
The Nation Digital Archive*
The Nation is America’s oldest weekly magazine and one if its premier journals of opinion since its inception in 1865. The Nation Digital Archive contains thousands of historic articles, letters and editorials dating back to Volume I, Number 1 on July 6, 1865, all fully searchable
These online service include access to OECD textual publications and access to OECD statistical databases in which data can be selected and downloaded in HTML, XLS or CSV formats. OECD iLibrary includes 17 thematic book collections (roughly 50 books a year), 14 journals, 24 Working Paper Series, and 22 OECD statistical databases.
Political Science Database
Political Science Database gives you full-text access to over 460 leading political science and international relations journals including highly cited journals such as Acta Politica, American Political Science Review, and Journal of Politics.
- Political science
- International relations
- Comparative politics
- Political economy
- International development
- Environmental policy
- Human rights
Please note that you can cross-search other ProQuest databases like ABI for business research in the same interface.
Political Science Complete (PSC)
Political Science Complete contains full text for more than 530 journals, and indexing and abstracts for over 2,900 titles, (including top-ranked scholarly journals). The database also features over 340 full-text reference books and monographs, and over 38,000 full-text conference papers, including those of the International Political Science Association
POLLUX ist der Fachinformationsdienst für die Politikwissenschaft, der Ihre Literaturrecherche und -beschaffung schneller und effizienter macht. Verschiedene Zusatzfunktionen unterstützen Ihre Forschungsarbeit. (German only)
SocINDEX with Full Text
SocINDEX™ with Full Text features more than 2.1 million records with subject headings from a 20,000+ term sociological thesaurus designed by subject experts and expert lexicographers.
This database also contains abstracts for more than 1,300 "core" coverage journals dating as far back as 1895. In addition, this file provides data mined from more than 450 "priority" coverage journals as well as from over 2,900 "selective" coverage journals.
SocINDEX with Full Text offers comprehensive coverage of sociology, encompassing all sub-disciplines and closely related areas of study. These include abortion, criminology & criminal justice, demography, ethnic & racial studies, gender studies, marriage & family, political sociology, religion, rural & urban sociology, social development, social psychology, social structure, social work, socio-cultural anthropology, sociological history, sociological research, sociological theory, substance abuse & other addictions, violence and many others.
SocINDEX with Full Text contains:
- Full text for 890 journals dating back to 1908
- Full text for more than 850 books and monographs
- Full text for over 16,800 conference papers
- More than 25,000 Author Profiles
Social Science Open Access Repository (SSOAR)
On SSOAR you will find a steadily growing collection of full-text social-science (i.e. Administrative Science, Political Economy, Political Science, Social Policy) documents which you can access freely.
Social Theory offers an extensive selection of documents that explore the complexities and interpret the nature of social behaviour and organization. This final release features more than 150,000 pages of content by such major theorists as Theodor Adorno, Jean Baudrillard, Simone de Beauvoir, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Émile Durkheim, Michel Foucault, Jürgen Habermas, Robert Merton, Dorothy E. Smith , and Talcott Parsons.
U.S. Congressional Serial Set, 1817-1980*
The U.S. Congressional Serial Set contains all the Reports, Documents, and Journals of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives and constitutes a rich collection of primary source material on all aspects of American history.
WISO (Wirthschaft & Soziales) von Genios
WISO (Wirtschafts & Soziales) bietet Ihnen die größte deutschsprachige Zusammenstellung von Literaturnachweisen und Volltexten zu Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften: Tausende deutscher und internationaler Publikationen werden ausgewertet und mit Quellenangabe, Schlagwörtern und Zusammenfassungen erschlossen.
Zusätzlich stehen mehrere Millionen Volltexte zur Verfügung. Zugang haben die Studenten und Mitarbeiter der meisten Universitäten und Fachhochschulen im deutschsprachigen Raum über das Internet.
Yearbook of International Organizations Online
The Yearbook of International Organizations Online provides a comprehensive database of intergovernmental (IGOs) and international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) worldwide. Free from print restrictions, the Yearbook Online covers over 67,000 international organizations – federations, scholarly societies, associations and transnational actors of all types – in all corners of the world, over centuries of history, and is updated on a regular basis by a dedicated editorial team. The new, flexible interface presents fully searchable content, and provides extensive hyperlinks between organization profiles and websites.
DSI Data Service & Information (http://www.dsidata.com) provides latest national and international statistical time series databases, e.g., from
- the World Bank,
- the UNIDO,
- the IMF,
- the OECD,
- the European Union (Eurostat, EU Commission, ECB) or
- Germany (German Central Bank, German Statistical Office)
maintained in a unique data warehouse. Prepared for simultaneous access by AllThatStats.com (http://www.AllThatStats.com) - the common platform optimized for retrieving big economic statistical databases. Users can extract data and build graphs and tables from accoss thousands of databases covering nearly all economies worldwide. The time series can be selected for statistical ad-hoc analysis, downloaded in various formats and edited and designed for publication-ready graphics and tables.
Eurostat offers a whole range of important and interesting data that governments, businesses, the education sector, journalists and the public can use for their work and daily life (such as the labor force survey, EU-SILC etc.).
EUROSTAT has recognized the Hertie School as a research entity. You have to Apply for access to microdata. Once we have recognised your organisation as a research entity, you can apply for access by submitting a research proposal (the procedure takes around 8-10 weeks).
TheGlobalEconomy.com provides reliable economic data on foreign countries including up-to-date numbers for GDP, inflation, credit, interest rates, employment, and other indicators. The data series are updated selected from multiple official sources such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations, and the World Economic Forum. Please contact the library in order to get access.
ICPSR maintains a data archive of more than 250,000 files of research in the social and behavioral sciences. It hosts 21 specialized collections of data in education, aging, criminal justice, substance abuse, terrorism, and other fields.
ICPSR is the world's largest collection of digital social science data. These data can be used for secondary research, instructional activities, and to write articles, papers, or theses.
These online service include access to OECD textual publications and access to OECD statistical databases in which data can be selected and downloaded in HTML, XLS or CSV formats. OECD iLibrary includes 22 OECD statistical databases.
- OECD iLibrary manual (pdf)
Statista.com is one of the first statistic portals in the world to integrate data on over 80.000 topics from over 18.000 sources onto a single professional platform. Categorized into 21 market sectors, Statista.com provides companies, business customers, research institutions, and the academic community with direct access to quantitative data on media, business, finance, politics, and a wide variety of other areas of interest or markets.
There are two databases: one in English, one in German. The data are not necessarily translated from one language to the other so you will get varying results in the English and the German interface.
Tilasto ist ein Portal mit rund 3,7 Mio. Statistiken und liefert Hintergrundinformationen für annähernd jede Fachrichtung. Mehr als 30.000 Themen aus Bereichen wie: Bevölkerung & Gesundheit, Wirtschaft, Handel, Branchen & Unternehmen, Energie & Umwelt, Bildung & Wissenschaft u.v.m. werden abgedeckt.
The World Bank provides free and open access to a comprehensive set of data about development in countries around the globe, together with other datasets cited in the data catalog.
Much of the data comes from the statistical systems of member countries, and the quality of global data depends on how well these national systems perform.
DataBank is an analysis and visualisation tool that contains collections of time series data on a variety of topics. You can create your own queries; generate tables, charts, and maps; and easily save, embed, and share them. Watch the tutorial and read the FAQs.
Find materials in other libraries
If you have checked the library catalogue and confirmed that we do not have access to the material you require, you might use our freely-available interlibrary loans service to obtain items which are not held in our library. We can order a wide range of academic books, chapters of books, journal articles and conference proceedings from other libraries for you.
Alternatively, you may also borrow in person from other academic libraries in Berlin and Potsdam. Students enrolled in one of Berlin's academic institutions are eligible to visit a range of other libraries in Berlin. Most of them will require a current ID and proof of address. Sometimes additional documentation may be required too.
Berlin’s Academic Libraries
Berlin’s State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin)
Berlin’s State Library, one of the largest academic libraries in Germany, is located only a stone’s throw away and offers remote access to its abundance of electronic resources.
Library users are required to have an identification card issued by the state library. Library membership is free.
You can sign up for membership by completing the registration process, for which the filled out registration form, your passport or a state-issued identification card and a valid certificate of residence (Meldebescheinigung) are needed, if the address is not mentioned on your identification card. Citizens from non-EU countries need to present a residence permit which is still valid for at least three months or a certification of enrollment from a Germany university.
The Library of Berlin’s Humboldt University
With its 12 locations, the University Library at Humboldt University is one of the most popular academic libraries in Berlin. Its Jacob-und-Wilhelm-Grimm-Zentrum is located close to the train station “Friedrichstraße” and is open from 8 am to midnight on weekdays. Its Law Branch Library features an impressive collection of legal literature focusing on German law as well as European and International Law.
No fees have to be paid for a library card, which is valid for one year. Your personal ID card or your passport and a residence permit are needed for the registration, which can be done on-site.
It is possible to register in advance using the online form. On-site, you then receive your library card at the service center upon presenting your personal ID card or your passport and a certificate of residence.
The Library of the Freie Universität: United Nations and European Union Documentation Center
Membership for the library of the Freie Universität is free. Users officially registered in Berlin or in Brandenburg can obtain a library card upon the presentation of an identification card (Personalausweis) or a passport in combination with the official proof of residence (Meldebescheinigung).
The library has been serving as a United Nations Depository Library since 1956 and as a European Documentation Center since 1963. Its documentation center team provides free assistance to anyone interested in using the collections and databases related to the United Nations and the European Union.
Other library catalogues
The search services mentioned below can help you locate material in Berlin, Brandenburg and Germany:
- The search service of the regional library portal for Berlin and Brandenburg, the KOBV (Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund Berlin-Brandenburg), can help you locate material in the region’s libraries. Currently, 77 libraries located in Berlin and Brandenburg are part of the library portal.
- Karlsruhe's Virtual Catalog (KVK) is a meta-search engine that simultaneously cross-searches multiple library and bookseller catalogues worldwide through one interface.
- The Journal Title Database (ZDB) is the world's largest specialised database for serial titles, such as journals, e-journals, annuals and newspapers.