Implementation is the crucial stage of policymaking and in environmental policy in particular, the gap between policies, laws and regulations on the one hand and the reality on the ground is wide. Implementation gaps and enforcement deficits are a global phenomenon and this course explores the causes, consequences and potential for improving implementation from a global comparative perspective. The course first introduces the political, societal and administrative causes of implementation failure - and success. Secondly, on the basis of existing scholarship on the politics of enforcing environmental, labour and consumer protection policy, in Latin America and Asia in particular, students will carry out their own (small) case studies on (environmental) policy enforcement. Key elements of comparative case study research design will be introduced and applied by you in empirical mini-projects. Guest speakers will provide insights into select aspects of global environmental policy.