Most states are more or less far away from the "Western ideal type". Such "limited statehood" is not an exception. And more likely than not, it is here to stay. In a nutshell, the course is exploring the consequences that this condition has for understanding and influencing governance, i.e. the provision of collective goods such as security, welfare, education, public health, a clean environment, etc. Most of the contemporary discourse on governance takes certain core elements of an ideal type of statehood for granted. Particularly prominent among those are an effective monopoly of the legitimate use of force and/or the ability to implement and enforce political decisions. Often overlooked by mainstream (Western) research, however, outside the OECD world – uniting almost three quarters of the world’s population – these assumptions do not hold. In most developing countries and transition states, control over the use of force is at least incomplete, and/or the state’s ability to implement and enforce political decisions is limited. Under such conditions, governance faces particular challenges and it works differently from well-established Western models. The course starts by analytically separating governance from statehood which will allow us to analyse various modes of governance within and beyond the parameters of statehood. Case-wise we will draw on numerous examples of (non-) governance from countries of the Southern hemisphere while covering a broad range of policy problems.